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Word building (word formation) is a process of building new words out of the material available in the language according to the structural and semantic rules and laws of this language.
Shortening (clipping) is a word-building process which involves qualitative changes and quantitative changes in a word; a significant subtraction, in which part of the original word is taken away.Apocope (back-clipping) is final clipping: the beginning of a word is retained, the end is clipped, i.e. preservation of the first part
Polysemy - a complex of all meanings which a word can have as a result of its development.
Polysemantic word - a word which has several meanings.
Homonymy – coincidence of sound forms for different meanings of words. Homonyms proper - words identical in pronunciation and spelling: case (Situation, bag) and seal (print, animal)
Homophones - words of the same sound form, but with different spelling and meaning: Night (opposite to day) – knight (medieval warrior); Hair (part of the scull) – hare (animal with long ears)
Homographs - words different in sound forms and in meaning but identical in spelling: bow [bou] лук – bow [bau] кланяться, кивать; wind [waind] – wind [wind]; lead [li:d] – lead [led] Go, come, run, speed, rush, move, ride – verbs of motion terms for groups of words: set expressions, phrases, phraseological units, idioms, collocations. Americanism - a wd or a wd combination peculiar to the English language spoken in the USA. E.g. cookie, elevator, truck, apartment etc.
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