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1. Two approaches the correlation of a shortened word with its prototype
2. Classification: apocope, aphaeresis, syncope,
Relations of Similarity and Polarity
Other types of words based on polarity of meaning. Two-member opposition: complementary antonyms. Reverse relations: reversives (conversives).
Relations of inclusion
1. Hyponymy – Hyperonymy
Other groups of wds
1. Lexico-grammatical group
Variants and dialects of the English language.
Peculiarities in grammar.
Вопросы к экзамену
ВАРИАНТЫ КОНТРОЛЬНЫХ РАБОТ, ТЕСТЫ ПО ОТДЕЛЬНЫМ РАЗДЕЛАМ И ТЕМАМ РАЗДЕЛАМ
Origin of English Words
Translate the following into Russian. State from what languages the following expressions and shortenings are borrowed.
coup d’état, kindergarten, tête-à-tête, Blitzkrieg, enfant terrible, persona grata, beau monde, leit-motiv, bon mot, prima donna, ottava rima, Hun, nazi, etc., e. g., a. m., p. m.
Group the following words according to their origin.
caftan, operetta, machine, vanilla, waltz, skipper, algebra, telephone, dollar, wigwam, mazurka, pagoda, kangaroo, taboo, gorilla, tobacco, chauffeur, beauty, umbrella, squaw, nun, sputnik, cosmodrome.
Compare the meaning of the following Russian and English words. Use them in sentences of your own.
характер - character, реализовать - reralize, агитатор - agitator, кондуктор - conductor, магазин - magazine, спекулировать - speculate, инцидент - incident, объект - object, принципиальный – principal
Explain the etymology of the following words. Write them out in three columns: a) fully assimilated words; b) partially assimilated words; c) unassimilated words. Explain the reasons for your choice in each case.
ballet, beet, butter, skin, take, cup, police, monk, garage, phenomenon, wine, large, lesson, criterion, nice, coup d’état, river, loose, skirt.
Give 5 own examples of words which could be translator’s false friends.
Pick out words with noun-building suffixes. Explain the meaning of the words.
1. He did not know how the officialdom would end the scandal. 2. Gemma’s friendship, her charm, her simple comradeship were the brightest things in his life. 3. Gabriel’s wife served out spoonfuls of the pudding and passed the plates down the table. 4. It was a dull, respectable, uninspired townlet, but scarcely a hole. 5. The grey changelessness of things got hold of me. 6. The cat is a splendid mouser. 7. When he returned to the palace the marketing began. 8. “Please,” auntie says, “will you try a piece of our Mayday cake?” 9. The pavement of the road took two months. 10. Shall I tell the receptionist that Mrs. Baird is a regular case and open an account for her?
Read the following sentences. Translate the words in bold type into Russian.
1. In a thoughtless moment he put his hand in his pocket. 2. She seemed resistless. 3. He continued in his honeyed voice. 4. The coffee was so sweetish, it made her shudder. 5. He passed a curtained corridor. 6. The boy was still standing there, peering trainward. 7. These professions are only in seasonal demand. 8. Can’t you see she is edgy after being up all night? 9. “No sense in getting panicky,” she assured herself. 10. She was more spiteful than all the rest put together. 11. His words were playful but his look became grave.
State the origin and explain the meaning of the suffixes in: childhood, hardship, freedom, toward, brotherly, granny, hatred, hireling, village, drunkard, limitation.
Explain the difference between the meanings of the following words produced from the same root by means of different affixes. Translate them into Russian: watery – waterish, embarrassed – embarrassing, colourful – coloured, respected – respectful, respectable, manly – mannish.
Read the following sentences, translate them. Define what part of speech the words in bold type are and what part of speech they are derived from.
1. Her heart hungered for action. 2. The road was mined. 3. The cows are milking well now. 4. His face chilled suddenly. 5. Cal voiced his dream. 6. The pages had yellowed with age. 7. He slowly corked the bottle. 8. A butterfly winged its way into the air. 9. He weekended with us. 10. She carefully bandaged the arm.
Explain the meanings of the verbs in bold type. Translate the verbs into Russian.
to powder one’s nose, to elbow one’s way, to head a delegation, to parrot the grown-ups, to nurse the wounded, to boss the job, to dock the ship, to garage the car, to barrel beer, to torture the prisoner, to anger the mother, to inconvenience the host
Supply the verbs which the nouns in bold type are derived from. Translate the original and the converted words into Russian. Comment on the semantic character of the derived nouns.
1. She is an awful tease. 2. The boy happened to be a cheat. 3. She is the well-know gossip of the town. 4. The night watch rushed to his help. 5. Then followed an interminable wait. 6. His long hunt for the book resulted in a failure. 7. The station is a half-an-hour walk from our house. 8. Christine had the run of Mrs. Herbert’s kitchen. 9. With his heavy bag and torn shoes he looked like a tramp. 10. He was certainly on the move.
Comment on relations within the conversion pairs. Use the verbs in your own sentences: dog – to dog, finger – to finger, dress– to dress, pocket– to pocket, back– to back, monkey – to monkey
Translate and explain the following cases of conversion: to pirate, to worm, to up, to engineer, to oh-oh, to thou.
Read the following sentences. Explain the meaning of the adjectives in bold type in English.
1. He was wearing a brand-new overcoat and hat. 2. His hair was a bit reddish before he went piebald. 3. It was a snowy pitch-black night. 4. The colour deepened in her rain-wet cheeks. 5. She never said she was homesick. 6. He ignored the red light as if he were colour-blind. 7. Don’t be so blood-thirsty, father! 8. He acted with pride, which one could not expect from such a lackey-minded person. 9. She is a tall woman with black hair and eyes and an ivory-white face. 10. The woman stared at her papers with sleep-filmed eyes. 11. He held his hands for a moment against his deep-lined cheeks.
Comment on the meanings of the following compound nouns. Translate them into Russian.
thumb-nail, nerve-knot, danger-point, daylight, cream-puff, corner-room, breast-pocket, side-door, egg-plant, jelly-fish, box-car, air-brake, inkstain, love-quarrel, girl-page, restaurant-car, money-box, hand-shake, stop-light, sun-light
Arrange the following compounds into three groups according to their motivation: fully or partially-motivated and unmotivated: light-hearted, butterfly, cabman, blackberry, wolf-dog, dragon-fly, looking-glass, bluestocking, necklace, earthquake.
Form as many compounds as possible with grass-, hand-, tree-, -looking.
Translate the following shortenings and comment on the type of them, give their full form:
H-bomb, mike, tec, comfy, UNESCO, Bella, cause, para troops, props.
Read the following sentences. Define the means by which the words in bold type are built. Translate the words into Russian.
1. She steeled herself to endure the bumping over the rough road. 2. She looked after the nurse with a doglike expression and slowly began to put on her dressing-gown. 3. Feelings continually voiced cease to be feelings and feelings never voiced deepen with their dumbness. 4. Life had rooted these ideas firmly in their minds. 5. He glanced at the clock and edged nearer to the door. 6. He was going to have tea with his aunties. 6. She had no intention of being sidetracked from the subject. 7. Then her mind pictured the layout. 8. “Frightfully bad roads! The bus was ditched in that narrow turning.” 9. He took the hours-old dish away. 10. He was heart-sore over the sudden collapse of a promising career. 11. I need not say that such a breach of confidence is unthinkable. 12. Then she catfooted to the opening, pausing for another second to listen. 13. It was a long hall papered and carpeted in dark green. 14. I’m always called “Mother” at home, because I’ve mothered him ever since my dear mother died.
State the semes of the following words: baby, monkey.
Give the denotational and connotational meaning of the following words:
granny, to pass away, to feather-bed, to soft-soap, to cosmeticize.
Pick out all the phraseological units from the following sentences and classify them. Translate all the passages into Russian.
1. … “I’d like to have a day or two in which to think it over… .” “Why, certainly, certainly, Mr. Cowperwood,” replied Stener genially. “That’s all right. Take you time.” 2. Jos, a clumsy and timid horseman, did not look to advantage in the saddle. “Look at him, Amelia dear… . Such a bull in a china shop I never saw.” 3. In the end he parted friends with both Tighe and Rivers. “That’s a smart young fellow,” observed Tighe, ruefully. “He’ll make his mark,” rejoined Rivers. 4. There was no reason why Anna should not make a splendid match. Joe and Ed might also marry since they were not destined to set the world on fire in commerce. 5. And he concluded … that no man could tell what he would do if he were in the shoes of another man. 6. A simple cold, caught in the room with double windows … and James was in deep waters. 7. “Jo,” he said. “I should like to hear what sort of water you’re in. I suppose you’re in debt?” 8. He was not vastly interested in Clare. She had always been to him one of those women who took the bit between their teeth and were bound to fetch up now and again with broken knees. 9. … the sooner you are gone bag and baggage, the better for all parties. 10. This lady knew all the Forsytes, and having been at June’s “at home,” was not at a loss to see with whom she had to deal. 11. The sea run high and the boat may be dashed to pieces on the rocks. 12. I guess I’ll pop outside and have a word with Miss Bunting. 13. The matter with her is that I played the fool with her, that’s all. 14. If you cry I will give Miss Wilson a piece of my mind for worrying you. 15. I know that we cut a very poor figure beside you.
Ex. 2Complete the following phrases so that they make English proverbs and phraseological units. Explain the meaning of the given part.
Give as many phraseological units as possible, using any of the following words:
to beat, to catch, to mind, bone, love, mouth, dead, ready
Transfer of meaning
Explain the logic of the transfer of meaning.
1.The wings of a bird, of a plane, of a mill; on wings of joy.
2.The foot of a man, of a hill, of a bottle.
3.Tongues of flame; The child’s tongue is coated.
4.The neck of a girl, of a bottle.
5.Moscow is the heart of the country; My heart is beating with excitement.
6.The mouth of a pot, of a river, of a cave.
Discuss the following cases of metonymy:
1. He is the hope of the family. 2. She was the pride of her school. 3. I have never read Balzac in the original. 4. My sister is fond of old china. 5. The coffee-pot is boiling. 6. The pit loudly applauded. 7. He succeeded to the crown.
Give all the meanings you know of the following words, illustrating them with examples:
to take, to feel, to let, power, drift, institute, to dress
Spell the following homophones. Translate them into Russian and use them in sentences of your own.
[´siəriəl], [´fa:ðə], [lein], [meiz], [diə], [pleit], [prei], [Θroun], [bi:t], [´beri], [seil], [sent], [pi:s]
Transcribe the following homographs. State their different meaning.
lead, compact, row, invalid, polish, desert, wind, bow, tear, close
Ex. 3Choose the right word:
Speak about the type of homonyms and explain the difference:
Translate paying attention to homonyms:
Explain what stylistic device is used in these proverbs and sayings, what it is based upon.
Synonyms and Antonyms
Translate the following words into English and give as many synonyms to them as you can.
просить, возможно, глупый, веселый, несчастье, начинать, выбирать, путешествие
In what respects do the following synonyms differ?
1.policeman, bobby, cop
2.master, owner, head, proprietor, possessor
3.worker, labourer, toiler, hand
4.fabricate, construct, frame, invent, forge, manufacture, feign
5.mansion, house, habitation, residence, abode
Change the following sentences so that they express the contrary meaning by using antonyms. State whether they are absolute or derivational antonyms.
1. All the seats were occupied. 2. The room was lighted by the strong rays of the sun. 3. He added three hundred to the sum. 4. I came in while you were asleep. 5. A lamp is a necessary thing in this room. 6. The door was closed and locked. 7. In the second year of their residence the company seemed especially to increase. 8. The little boy was outside the car. 9. He drew two crooked lines. 10. Light curtains hung in the dining-room windows; therefore it was light.
Are the following words synonyms? Prove your point of view.
n. pillow, cushion
Do you think that Sonnet 66 by W.Shakespeare is based on polarity of words? Are these words antonyms? Why?
W.Shakespeare Sonnet LXVI
Tired with all these, for restful death I cry,
As, to behold desert a beggar born,
And needy nothing trimme’d in jollity,
A purest faith unhappily forsworn,
And gilded honour shamefully misplaced,
And maiden virtue rudely sytrumpeted,
And right perfection wrongfully disgraced,
And strength by limping sway disabled,
And art made tongue-tired by authority,
And folly doctor-like controlling skill,
And simple truth miscall’d simplicity,
And captive good attending captain ill;
Tired with all these, from these would I be gone,
Save that, to die, I live my love alone.
Is Sonnet 80 by W.Shakespeare based on similarity of meaning of words? Are those words synonyms? Prove.
W.Shakespeare Sonnet CXXX
My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun;
Coral is far more red than her lips’ red;
If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.
I’ve seen roses damaske’d, red and white,
But no such roses see I in her cheeks;
And in some perfumes is there more delight
That in the breath that from my mistress reeks.
I love to hear her speak, yet well I know
Remember 5 titles of different types of pieces of fiction (stories, novels, plays), based on antonymy.
Translate the following words into English, giving two variants – British and American:
каникулы, бензин, вата, детская коляска, плащ, консервная банка, студент 2 курса, почтальон, шашки, очередь, бумажник, справочное бюро
Point out words: 1) the meaning of which in American English is entirely different from that in British English, 2) the general meaning of which is the same in both American and British English, but which have acquired an additional specific meaning in American English.
apartment, tardy, guess, homely, mad, sick, billion, corn, dessert, commute, lunch, cane
Translate the following, using the prepositions current in America and then in England.
стоять на углу, ездить на поезде, сходить с поезда, жить на улице Н., без четверти девять, четверть десятого, заполнить бланк
Give the English spelling of the following words:
thru, humor, apologize, center, pretense, inflexion, jewelry, quarreled, woolen, harbor, pijamas, gipsy, program
1.”To electrocute” is an example of…
a)abbreviation. b)shortened word combination.
2.a)Affixational morphemes are always free.
b) Affixational morphemes are always bound.
c) Affixational morphemes can be bound and free.
d) Affixational morphemes carry no meaning.
3.”Glance” is the … of “look”.
a)hyponym b)hyperonym c)antonym d)homonym c)is a dialect. d)doesn’t exist. a)a neologism b)a barbarism c)an archaism d)a verb The modern approach to word studies distinguishes the external and the internal structures of the word. By the external structure of the word we mean its morphological structure: prefixes, suffixes, roots, etc. The internal structure of the word is its meaning or its semantic structure. The area of lexicology specializing in the semantic studies of the word is called semantics. Sometimes scientists distinguish words of the English proper element – words that don’t have similar representatives in other Indo-European or Germanic languages (their roots or other elements are different). Native words in general are the most active part of the vocabulary. Among the 500 most frequently used English words more than 80% are of native origin. They are often used in word-building (word-formation). Very often a word is borrowed by several languages. Such words are called international. Many of them are of Latin and Greek origin. Speaking about the structure of words, it depends on different morphemes which they include. According to their structure (English) words are classified into: Derivation, conversion, semantic development are quite productive. As for non-productive ways of word-formation (not really spread), they are: sound-interchange (blood – to bleed); back-formation (baby-sitter – to baby-sit).
As a rule prefixes do not change the part of speech, but there are several of them which do so. That’s why they are called convertive (changing the form/ the part of speech).
Prefixes can be classified according to their origin. Here they can be divided into native and borrowed.
Prefixes can also be classified into productive (which take part in deriving new words in this particular period of language development) and non-productive. Prefixes can belong to different styles.
According to their meaning English prefixes are grouped the following way (the major groups):
The main classification of suffixes is based on the parts of speech. There can be:
From the point of view of meaning noun suffixes indicate a doer of an action; the relation of possession, belonging to some group; collectivity and other similar notions; diminutiveness; feminine gender.
As for other peculiarities of English suffixes, there are those that change the part of speech and those that don’t do it (grey - greyish).
The semantic type of the word can be changed with the help of some suffixes. For example, some words denoting objects become abstract (leader – leadership).
As well as prefixes, English suffixes can be stylistically coloured or neutral.
Since any living language can develop, there are some changes in the meaning of its affixes. That’s why we have such phenomena as polysemy, homonymy and synonymy of affixes. It’s only natural that affixes have several meanings. Even the most famous ones.
-er – 1) a doer of some action (a living being);
2) an object (boiler);
3) a person who is in some state (watcher);
4) distinguishes a feature of a man (chatter).
1) adverb-forming (quietly, readily);
By productive affixes we mean those that take part in deriving new words in this particular period of language development. The best way to identify productive affixes is to look for them among neologisms (new words and occasional words). There are several ways to classify compounds. Firstly, they can be grouped according to their part of speech. Secondly, compounds are grouped according to the way the stems are linked together: morphological compounds (few in number); syntactic compounds (from segments of speech, preserving articles, prepositions, adverbs). In linguistics conversion is a type of word-formation; it is a process of creating a new word in a different part of speech without adding any derivational element. The morphemic shape of the original word remains unchanged. There are changes in the syntactical function of the original word, its part of speech and meaning. 4) the agent or the instrument of the action. 6.Synonyms, antonyms and other semantic groupings. The result of semantic changes can be seen in denotational and connotational meanings. The denotational meaning can be generalized or specialized. The connotational meaning can be worsened or elevated. The development of the English vocabulary
Subject of Lexicology
Lexicology (comes from Greek) is a branch of linguistics which studies words and their usage. Lexicology studies the meaning of a word, its structure, combinability, its formation. It investigates different types of word groups. It also studies the vocabulary of this or that society.
Morphemes – the smallest meaningful units in a language (which consist of a word or part of a word that cannot be divided without losing its meaning) (Longman)
All morphemes are subdivided into 2 large classes: root morphemes and affixational morphemes. Affixational morphemes include suffixes and prefixes.
Allomorphs are morphemes which have different phonemic shapes. They are pronounced in different ways.
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